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Intelligence Handling

Question

1. Please could you describe the intelligence handling and analysis processes used by your force. For clarity, we are particularly interested in processes that relate to the definition, collection, use, retention and disclosure of intelligence, including the criteria for uploading onto the PND and specialised databases.

2. Do your officers and staff use any sort of computational or algorithmic data analysis or decision-making in relation to the analysis of intelligence?  If so, could you confirm the nature of the algorithm(s) used and the purposes for which the algorithm(s) are used, for instance for prediction of risk of crime.

3. If your officers and staff do use any sort of computational or algorithmic data analysis in relation to the analysis of intelligence, please could you confirm who creates those algorithms: internally within your force; a national policing body; a private sector body; otherwise;

4. Please could you indicate the number of officers and staff disciplined for not following your force's intelligence processes for years 2013-14 and 2014-15 and the nature of the failure.

Answer

1. Avon and Somerset Constabulary follow the National Intelligence Model (NIM) in association with the Data Protection Act (DPA) and The Management of Police Information Act (MOPI) to ensure that all data received is handled, analysed, processed, disseminated and retained appropriately.

 National Intelligence Model (NIM)

The NIM is an information based deployment system and a cornerstone for the management of law enforcement operations in England and Wales.  An initial set of minimum standards was published and all police forces comply with them. 

The NIM requires that policing intelligence operated at three levels of policing:

Level 1 – Local crime and disorder

Level 2 – Cross border issues

Level 3 – Serious and organised crime usually operation on a national and international scale.

The NIM improves the opportunities to share intelligence across forces and agencies and between local and national levels of policing.

Management of Police Information (MOPI) Code of Practice

MOPI provides a way of balancing proportionality and necessity that are at the heart of effective police information management.  It highlights the issues that need to be considered in order to comply with the law and manage risk associated with police information.

The MOPI defines policing purposes as:

  • Protecting life and property
  • Preserving order
  • Preventing the commission of offences
  • Bringing offenders to justice
  • Any duty or responsibility of the police arising from common or statute law

The above five policing purposes provide the legal basis for collecting, recording, evaluating, sharing and retaining police information.

Data Protection Act

Schedule 1 to the DPA lists the data protection principles in the following terms:

1 – personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully and, in particular, shall not be processed unless –

  • At least one of the conditions in schedule 2 is met, and
  • In the case of sensitive personal data, at least one of the conditions in schedule 3 is also met

2 – personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes.

3 – personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date

4 – personal data processed for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes.

5 – personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects under this act

6 – appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data

7 – personal data shall not be transferred to a country or territory outside the European Economic Area unless that country or territory ensures an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects in relation to the processing of personal data.

5x5x5

Information to be considered for intelligence purposes is graded by the submitting officer.  The information is graded using a 5x5x5 format.  The 5x5x5 is a tool which allows the police service to manage information which has a risk attached to it.  The 5x5x5 is a national information/intelligence report consisting of:

  • Source evaluation
  • Information/intelligence evaluation
  • Handling code

2. The force uses a number of predictive models to support traditional intelligence analysis and business insight. These models include a number of business areas such as profiling individual risks through to broader forecasts.  

3. Predictive models are created in-house by trained members of staff.

4. No police officers or members of police staff have been disciplined for not following the Avon and Somerset Constabulary intelligence processes for the years 2013-14 or 2014-15. This information has been obtained from our professional standards department using a relevant keyword search.

Data is uploaded to PND by way of regular data transfer.

In addition, Avon and Somerset Constabulary can neither confirm nor deny that it holds any further information with regard to an exempt body as the duty in Section 1(1)(a) of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 does not apply by virtue of the following exemption:

Section 23(5) Information Supplied by, or concerning, certain Security Bodies.

Section 23 is a class based absolute exemption and there is no requirement to consider the public interest in this case.  Confirming or denying the existence of whether information is held would contravene the constrictions laid out with Section 23 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 in that this stipulates a generic bar on disclosure of any information applied by, or concerning, certain Security Bodies. 

FOI Ref: 263/16

Date of Request: 14.02.16